For the Australian Alps national parks Co-operative Management ProgramAustralian Alps Liaison Committee, February 2004
This plan was prepared by Lorraine Cairnes, Fathom Consulting, Sydney, in conjunction with the Australian Alps Liaison Committee. Personnel from the four agencies provided comments, advice and assistance during the Plan’s preparation, and these inputs are acknowledged with appreciation.
For information about this plan, please contact the AALC.
Contacts can be found on the website and through the participating agencies telephones at:
Commonwealth Department of the Environment
(Telephone 02 6274 1111)
ACT Parks and Conservation Service
(Telephone 02 6207 9777)
NSW National Parks
(Telephone 1300 361 967)
(Telephone 131 963)
This plan will commence in 2004 upon approval by the Alps Heads of Agencies group, and will run until the end of the financial year 2006-2007 or at the time when it is replaced by the subsequent plan.
The situational analysis and the strategies that flow from this analysis will be reviewed annually by the AALC, and any changes needed will be recommended to the Heads of Agencies Group.
The coordinated management, protection and conservation of the Australian Alps national parks for all Australians, present and future, is the subject of an agreement (a Memorandum of Understanding) between the Commonwealth, New South Wales, Australian Capital Territory and Victorian Governments.
The Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) in relation to the cooperative management program was originally signed by all parties in 1986 and revised in 1989, 1996, 1998 and 2003.
The vision of the Australian Alps co-operative management program is of Agencies working in partnership to achieve excellence in conservation management of its natural and cultural values and sustainable use through an active program of cross border co-operation.
The Australian Alps, a mountainous biogeographical region in a predominantly dry and flat continent, contain Australia’s highest peaks and unique alpine and subalpine ecosystems; they stretch from Canberra through the Brindabella Range in the ACT, the Snowy Mountains of NSW and along the Great Dividing Range through Victoria. The Australian Alps contain plants and animals found nowhere else in the world, and contain significant landscapes, and Aboriginal and historic places. They are a highly valued recreational resource for many Australians, and are the headwaters of some of Australia’s most important rivers and streams, supplying snowmelt waters for the maintenance of ecological processes and communities, domestic use, industry, irrigation and hydro-electric production in NSW, Victoria, ACT and South Australia.
The Australian Alps Liaison Committee (AALC) coordinates projects that encourage the consistent and cooperative management of the Australian Alps national parks. The program enhances the ability of member agencies to meet their roles and responsibilities in managing the parks and reserves in alpine and sub-alpine regions of mainland Australia.
This strategic plan is based on a number of Key Result Areas, for which outcomes and strategies provide the framework for a program that will contribute to agency goals in relation to the cooperative management of the Australian Alps national parks and their individual elements. The agencies have developed this Strategic Plan together, and have agreed to implement it, co-ordinated by the Australian Alps Liaison Committee, as individual agency resources and priorities permit.
Terms in this plan are used in the same sense as in the Memorandum of Understanding 2003. For the purposes of this strategy the following definitions apply:
Cooperative management means fostering a culture of goodwill, involving activities, projects, and complementary and supportive relationships, and adding value to those relationships through associated economies of scales, going beyond line management and individual agency constraints to ensure consistency across borders.
The Australian Alps national parks Co-operative Program (also referred to as the Alps Co-operative Program) is the ongoing activities, projects, works and administration undertaken to implement the Memorandum of Understanding.
The Australian Alps Annual Co-operative Works Program (referred to in this plan as the Annual Works Program) is the group of activities and projects undertaken each year under AAnp funding and co-operative resourcing arrangements.
The administrative structure will aim to operate with low overheads and effective integration with agency structures and the Alps planning framework (MOU, strategic plan and annual works plans). The agencies will share the administrative support and program management tasks on a rotational basis.
The following entities have functional roles in the Australian Alps cooperative management program under the Memorandum of Understanding.
Responsible for high-level inter-government relationships and the Memorandum of Understanding.
Meets annually; considers strategic issues; approves Strategic Plan; advises AALC on policy, priority areas for program development and emerging issues with respect to the scope of the MOU; reviews progress; receives annual report; negotiates funds or in-kind support contributed by the Agencies.
Develops, implements and reviews the strategic plan; coordinates management of the co-operative program; develops and reviews progress of the Annual Works Program; identifies and supports opportunities for inter-agency liaison; enters cost sharing arrangements with agencies; engages with third parties with interests in other Alps parks; prepares annual report; reports to the HOA and Ministerial Council annually on the implementation of the Strategic Plan.
Facilitates and supervises the Annual Works Program and Annual Plan; maintains effective liaison with all stakeholders; facilitates the KRA for Capacity Building; assists and supports the Working Groups and special task groups, manages the budget including contract management, prepares newsletters and annual report, specific project management, recruitment and supervision of short term project officers to undertake special projects, oversees production supply and distribution of all Alps products; promotes Alps program and provides administrative support to the AALC; prepares the Annual Plan; organises the annual workshop; supports the Alps Operational Group.
Secretariat support to the AALC & Alps HOA group; maintains the records of the AALC’s business; administrative support and program management tasks as requested by AALC including all arrangements for meetings; ensures relevant documents are available for meetings; arranges agendas, minute taking and circulation; other related tasks directed by AALC.
For this section the definitions used are:
Working Group: An ongoing group for the term of the Plan with a broad functional role to implement a Program Key Result Area; may develop new projects, and manage programs or multiple projects
Task Force: Undertakes a specific job and then is dissolved upon completion of the task.
Steering Committee: Guides and advises a person or group undertaking a special task.
Reference Group: Provides the AALC expert comment and advice on a project or task.
The AALC may form special task groups from time to time such as Working Groups, Task Forces, Steering Committees and Reference Groups to direct or advise on individual projects or program areas on behalf of the AALC.
Groups comprising up to two officers from each agency; develop projects for Key Result Areas in the Annual Works Plan; manage approved projects; report on KRA outcomes; integrate work programs and outcomes with those of other KRAs; liaison with specialist stakeholders within agencies; provide advice to the AALC on specific result areas. (Terms of reference for working groups are included in this plan.)
The AALC will invite nominations for membership of the working groups for the life of this Strategic Plan.
The AOG, a special task group reporting to the AALC, will be formed for the duration of this plan to facilitate co-operative operational implementation of completed and on-going Alps projects. Its focus will be to ensure that the Alps program is consistent with and incorporated into the management programs of each of the individual agencies. It will be chaired by an AALC member from one of the three agencies with “on-ground” management roles, with membership being operational managers from each of these agencies. The secretariat function for the AOG will be carried out by the AOG Chair’s organisation. Terms of reference for the AOG are appended tothis plan.
Agencies will incorporate relevant aspects of the Alps program into their business plans as directed by their Head of Agency, and as far as their resources and policies permit. This will be facilitated through the AALC. Agencies may agree to manage projects on behalf of the AALC.
Agency personnel may participate in and provide advice to the Alps co-operative program through their day to day work, and through membership of special task groups by attendance at workshops, and submission of project proposals. With the agreement of agencies, officers may act as project officers for Alps projects.
The Alps Co-operative Program to date has achieved the following:
- The Australian Alps are now widely perceived and understood as a single biogeographical unit of national significance.
- A culture of cooperation and goodwill amongst the participating agencies has been established and maintained.
- World’s best practice in cross-border management of protected areas has been established.
- Co-ordination of the International Year of the Mountains 2002 celebrations for Australia, including a significant gathering of Aboriginal people,
- Uniform and coordinated planning approaches, management policies, visitor advice, and compliance activities across borders is continually pursued and has been achieved in many areas.
- The significant natural values of the Australian Alps national parks, have been defined by the Alps program, and are now being widely used as a basis for planning and management.
- A research strategy for the cultural heritage of the Alps has been developed, based on principal Australian historic themes, to help to identify the national heritage significance of the Alps national parks.
- Respect for the Alps’ Aboriginal values and heritage, and improved engagement and involvement with Aboriginal people with connections to the Alps.
- Coordination of many areas of training and research, resulting in enhancement of management expertise and performance and avoidance of duplication of training across agencies.
- Recognition of the customer services needed by visitors and the production of a suite of visitor resources that promotes enjoyment, appreciation and sustainable use.
The purpose of this Strategic Plan is to set out the framework for achieving the objectives of the Memorandum of Understanding, which are:
- To pursue the growth and enhancement of inter-governmental co-operative management to protect the important natural and cultural values of the Australian Alps national parks.
- To co-operate in the determination and implementation of best-practice management of the areas listed in Schedule 1 of the MOU to achieve:
- Protection of the unique mountain landscapes;
- Protection of the natural and cultural values of the Australian Alps;
- Provision of an appropriate range of outdoor recreation and tourism opportunities that encourage the enjoyment, education, understanding and conservation of the natural and cultural values; and
- Protection of mountain catchments.
In the triennium 2004-2007, the Australian Alps national parks co-operative program will address the following issues as priorities, which were identified by the Alps Ministerial Council, the Alps HOA, the AALC and the International Year of the mountains Conference:
- Further development of the “one park” concept, pursuing consistency in planning processes, policy development, plans of management and cross-border integration.
- Focus on the achievements and outputs to date of the co-operative program, and improved implementation of these on the ground.
- Increased involvement of Aboriginal people in the Australian Alps national parks co-operative program and a greater commitment to enhanced understanding of Aboriginal heritage values.
- Pursue nomination of the Australian Alps national parks to the National Heritage List.
- Facilitation of consistent and collaborative approaches to recovery from the 2003 Alps fire events.
- Improved access and management of Alps databases, reports and information resources to assist in achieving best practice conservation and consistent management of the Australian Alps.
- Increased community awareness and understanding of the significant values of the Australian Alps.
The MOU and the Strategic Plan will be implemented by an Annual Plan approved by the AALC, which will include:
- Consideration of resources and budget;
- Listing of required and proposed activities and events such as meetings, workshops, and other events;
- Listing of ongoing and new funded projects;
- An outline timetable for strategic activities; and
- An annual performance evaluation strategy.
The AALC will co-ordinate and implement an Annual Co-operative Works Program (known as the Annual Works Program) to achieve the objectives, address the issues identified for this triennium, and foster innovation and best practice in the areas of policy and management planning, education, training, research and performance measurement.
The Annual Works Program is based on financial years. The groups facilitating the KRAs (AALC, Program Co-ordinator, Working Groups and the Alps Operational Group) may propose projects for the Annual Works Program.
Project proposals for the Annual Works Program will be considered, funded and managed in a systematic way.
All project proposals for the Annual Works Program will be considered on their merits in terms of contribution to the objectives, outcomes and strategies of this Strategic Plan. Projects must meet the following criteria:
- Contribute to the long term conservation of significant natural and cultural values of the parks;
- Have outcomes that have application to improved park management in at least two of the States/Territory;
- Result (either directly or on implementation) in on-ground benefits to the management of the Australian Alps national parks; and
- Foster innovation and best practice in the areas of policy and management planning, education, training, research and performance measurement.
Project proposals must include the following information:
- Description of the whole life of the project, from inception to on-ground use;
- The target users and uses of the project;
- The mechanisms proposed for knowledge transfer during or at completion of the project; and
- The means by which the project’s performance will be evaluated and the information that will be provided to assess performance.
On-ground works. The Australian Alps Liaison Committee will consider supporting on-ground works on a cost-sharing basis with an Agency where the project:
- Involves implementation of a strategic approach consistent with the objectives of the MOU and this plan; and
- Has commitment of support to its continuance and/or maintenance by the Agency.
The performance of the Australian Alps national parks co-operative management program will be evaluated annually by the AALC, focussed on the outcomes in this Strategic Plan for each of the Key Result Areas.
For each KRA the group responsible for facilitating it (AALC, Working Groups or Alps Operational Group) will evaluate the following aspects annually, using appropriate performance measures or performance indicators, and report these to the AALC:
- The KRA is supported by and relevant to all of the Agencies.
- The outcome for the KRA remains valid and relevant in its scope and applicability to the Australian Alps national parks.
- There is evidence that the required outcome for the KRA is being achieved.
- The strategies for the KRA remain appropriate (useful and relevant) to achieve the outcome for the KRA and the MOU.
Each project in the Annual Works Plans will be evaluated by the project manager, who will report on its performance to the AALC through the group facilitating the KRA, using appropriate performance measures or performance indicators as part of the project. The following evaluation aspects are required for all projects, and additional performance indicators or measures may also be reported. This information should be in a form suitable for inclusion in the Annual Report.
Performance measures or performance indicators required for all projects will evaluate the following:
- The completed project contributed directly or indirectly to the conservation of significant values of the Australian Alps national parks.
- The target users are aware of the project’s results and have access to it.
- Target users found the project relevant and useful.
- The project was completed on time and within budget, acknowledging approved variations.
- Ability to implement the proposed knowledge transfer strategy.
An annual assessment of the success of the MOU, the Australian Alps national parks co-operative program and the Annual Works Program will be communicated to Alps Heads of Agencies group, Ministers and other interested parties through the AALC’s Annual Report. The Annual Report will detail the outputs of the Australian Alps national parks co-operative program and the Annual Works Program and their benefits to Australian Alps national parks, and will include the performance evaluation reporting required by this Strategic Plan.
There are two groups of key result areas (KRAs) for this plan:
- Management KRAs – facilitated* directly by AALC or its appointees.
- Program KRAs – facilitated* by Working Groups & the Alps Operational Group.
* Facilitated means taking responsibility for implementation of the KRA
- KRA for Australian Alps program management
- KRA for capacity building
- KRA for integrated landscape management
- KRA for natural heritage conservation
- KRA for cultural heritage conservation
- KRA for visitor resources and use
- KRA for community awareness
- KRA for operational implementation
Working Groups (or other special task groups facilitating the KRAs) have the following responsibilities:
- To consider the fundamental objectives of the MOU in achieving the outcome for the KRA;
- To provide the AALC with advice on new and emerging issues related to the KRA;
- To endeavour to achieve the KRA’s outcome through the strategies identified in this plan, and by directing or undertaking projects and activities;
- To prioritise their work plans for activities and projects in the triennium in the light of the priority issues listed in this plan, and the resources realistically available;
- To maintain effective linkages with the groups facilitating other KRAs under this plan;
- To consider the perspectives of Aboriginal people in contributing to the outcome for the KRA;
- To encourage the involvement of all agency personnel with an interest or role in the KRA;
- To focus on the knowledge needs of the AAnp agencies and their staff, as well as those of the community;
- To consider and advise on knowledge transfer, but not necessarily undertake this process directly; and
- To report annually to the AALC on performance of the KRA and its related projects towards achieving the outcomes;
The following outcomes, strategies and performance evaluation requirements have been developed for the key result areas. The Annual Works Program for each KRA will be closely tied to its strategies. The performance evaluation will be the basis of annual reporting.
KRA: Australian Alps program management
Facilitated by: the AALC
The Australian Alps national parks co-operative program will be well managed, maintain its effectiveness to achieve the vision and objectives of the MOU 2003, and operate within the relevant policy context of each participating agency.
Strategy 1. Cooperative management program. Sustain, develop and promote the Australian Alps cooperative management program as a centre of excellence in mountain protected area management.
Strategy 2. Annual Plan. Develop an Annual Plan that includes an Annual Works Program of projects and activities to address the priority issues for the triennium and achieve the outcomes for the Key Result Areas.
Strategy 3. Strategic partnership alliances. Develop and take opportunities for strategic alliances with national and international organisations including protected area management agencies and other relevant government and non-government stakeholders.
Strategy 4. Monitor results. Monitor, evaluate and report the performance of the Australian Alps national parks co-operative program through the achievements for each of the Key Result Areas.
Strategy 5. Special Task groups. Establish and support Special Task groups (Working Groups and other groups) to direct or advise on individual; projects, activities or program areas on behalf of the AALC.
The AALC will evaluate the performance and achievements of the Australian Alps national parks co-operative program and report the results in the Annual Report. At the end of this strategic plan, the Liaison Committee will commission a formal independent evaluation of the program and the implementation of this strategic plan.
KRA: capacity building
Facilitated by: the AALC by delegation to its Program Co-ordinator
Park-based personnel will increase and share their knowledge and understanding of the values of the Australian Alps national parks, and acquire best-practice skills for managing and communicating these values, and improved cross-agency links.
Strategy 1. Best practice skills and management. Foster common goals for targeted areas requiring training, and encourage staff to share and develop expertise and specialist skills in best-practice management of the natural and cultural values of the Australian Alps national parks;
Strategy 2. Communication. Encourage communication between agency staff concerning the Australian Alps cooperative management program;
Strategy 3. Improved access to Alps information & research resources. Facilitate improved access by Alps park personnel to all Alps reports, proceedings, information databases and research findings. This may be achieved by the development of an Alps intranet site or through other information technology solutions as appropriate;
Strategy 4. Research, management and monitoring. Encourage and support Park-based personnel and others involved in research, management and monitoring in the Australian Alps national parks;
Strategy 5. Staff placements. Encourage and facilitate park personnel to enhance their expertise through appropriate short-term exchange, secondments or placement with other agencies, either within or outside the Australian Alps national parks co-operative program.
Strategy 6. Professional Development. Enhance professional development for Alps national parks staff by encouraging and facilitating participation in special task groups such as working groups, the Alps Operational Group, and taskforces
The general performance evaluation requirements for KRAs will be addressed for this KRA by the AALC’s Program Co-ordinator and reported annually.
KRA: Integrated landscape management
Facilitated by: the AALC
An integrated approach to documenting, recognising and managing all of the natural and cultural values of the landscapes of the Australian Alps national parks.
Strategy 1. Whole-landscape approach. Encourage and promote a whole-landscape perception of the unique mountain landscapes and catchments of the Alps biogeographic unit in planning and management.
Strategy 2. Nomination to national heritage list. Facilitate and co-ordinate formal documentation of the Alps’ significant values for nomination to Australia’s national heritage list.
Strategy 3. Integrated management planning. Continue to develop and implement the “one park” planning philosophy by: adoption of common approaches to planning and management between the agencies to provide an integrated and consistent approach across the Alps; identifying effective means of monitoring progress with implementation; and utilising this approach to assist in recovery following the fire events of 2003.
Strategy 4. Expert Scientific Panel. Establish an expert group to advise on Alps-wide responses and directions for recovery from the bushfire events of 2003.
Strategy 5. Catchment quality. Position the Alps Program to take a greater role, in protection and recognition of the values of the Alps national parks’ catchments through the AusRivas program and the fire recovery process,
The general performance evaluation requirements for KRAs will be addressed for this KRA by the AALC and reported annually.
KRA: Natural heritage conservation
Facilitated by: Working Group for Natural Heritage Conservation
Improved understanding and enhanced management of the flora and fauna, ecological processes and communities of the Australian Alps national parks.
Strategy 1. National Heritage listing. Contribute knowledge about the significant natural heritage values of the Australian Alps to a nomination for the Alps as a National Heritage Place.
Strategy 2. Fire recovery. Work collaboratively on recovery of the Alps ecosystems and communities affected by the 2003 fires and improved understanding of the role of fire in the Alpine environment.
Strategy 3. Database management. Update, maintain and encourage use of all Alps natural heritage databases.
Strategy 4. Threat abatement. Undertake a series of best practice pest control workshops for agency staff.
Strategy 5. Improved understanding. Facilitate and support research into the natural values and ecological processes of the Australian Alps national parks that will increase understanding, identify threats and assist in monitoring condition of these ecosystems.
The general performance evaluation requirements for the KRAs will be addressed for this KRA by the Working Group facilitating this KRA, and reported annually.
KRA: Cultural heritage conservation
Facilitated by: Working Group for cultural heritage conservation
Improved understanding of and respect for the Aboriginal and historic cultural heritage values of the Australian Alps national parks, including sites, places and landscapes, and incorporation of these values into effective conservation and management programs
Strategy 1. Respect for cultural heritage. Continue to develop and interpret a strategy that will engender a sense of value, respect and ownership within the agencies and community, for Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal heritage of the Australian Alps national parks.
Strategy 2. National Heritage listing. Contribute knowledge about the significant cultural heritage, inspirational landscapes and cultural settings of the Australian Alps to a nomination for the Alps as a National Heritage Place.
Strategy 3. Involvement of Indigenous people. Identify and promote opportunities for the involvement of Indigenous people in all aspects of the management of the Australian Alps national parks.
Strategy 4. Threat abatement. Identify threats to the significant cultural values of the Australian Alps national parks and develop appropriate threat abatement strategies, based on a region-wide approach.
Strategy 5. Fire recovery. Work collaboratively on the restoration of significant cultural heritage values affected by the 2003 fires
Strategy 6. Project tools. Provide tools and processes, where resources and priorities permit, that will assist agencies, research organisations and relevant community groups to undertake cultural heritage projects.
The general performance evaluation requirements for the KRAs will be addressed for this KRA by the Working Group facilitating this KRA and reported annually.
KRA: Visitor recreation and facilities
Facilitated by: Working Group for visitor recreation and facilities
Implementation of contemporary approaches to management of visitor resources and use in mountain protected areas, through supporting best-practice philosophy and principles for sustainable use and minimal impact.
Strategy 1. Workshops. Foster best practice contemporary visitor management techniques through workshops for agency personnel and interested stakeholders.
Strategy 2. Alps Walking Track. Facilitate a co-ordinated approach to the repair, management and promotion of the Alps Walking Track.
Strategy 3. Visitor impact monitoring strategies. Develop strategies that can be used across the Alps to monitor visitor impacts using methodologies that identify sustainable ecological and social limits, related to visitor needs, expectations and satisfaction.
Strategy 4. Plans of management. Consider emerging needs and issues for visitor recreation and facilities, and their relationship to plans of management.
Strategy 5. Past work review. Review and summarise the past work of the Alps program on visitor recreation and facilities and provide this advice to the Alps Operational Group for consideration of implementation opportunities and further refinement.
The general performance evaluation requirements for KRAs will be addressed for this KRA by the Working Group facilitating this KRA and reported annually.
KRA: COMMUNITY AWARENESS
Facilitated by: Working Group for Community Awareness
The public is aware of, and has access to, information about, the unique mountain landscapes and catchments, and natural and cultural values of the Australian Alps national parks, the actions and behaviour needed to protect these values, and the objectives and achievements of the co-operative management program.
Strategy 1. Awareness programs. Develop programs to increase the community’s awareness and appreciation of the values of the Australian Alps national parks and the achievements of the Alps co-operative program
Strategy 2. Fire in the Alps. Develop materials and programs that increase public understanding of the role of fire in the Alps ecosystems, and fire management.
Strategy 3. Customer Service. Develop training programs and information networks that assist front line agency staff across the Alps national parks to provide up to date and accurate information and to promote minimal impact messages.
Strategy 4. Community audiences. Identify changes in key community audiences, and evaluate their knowledge of and involvement with the Australian Alps national parks management program; and use this evaluation to further improve community awareness of the Alps national parks.
Strategy 5. Provision of products. Develop, and facilitate the marketing of information materials and other products that will enhance visitors’ enjoyment, and understanding, and encourage protection of the Australian Alps national parks.
The general performance evaluation requirements for KRAs will be addressed for this KRA by the Working Group facilitating this KRA and reported annually.
KRA: Operational implementation
Facilitated by: Alps Operational Group
Agencies and their personnel are aware of, and have access to, best practice advice, and the materials and resources produced by the Alps co-operative management program so that, these can be put to practical use in the Australian Alps national parks.
Strategy 1. Operational management co-operation. Establish an Alps Operational Group as a forum of field-based managers to help facilitate improved integration of the Australian Alps national parks co-operative program into agency programs.
Strategy 2. Knowledge transfer.Identify appropriate and effective techniques for transfer of knowledge to field-based personnel about the resources and outcomes of the Alps programs.
Strategy 3. Feedback from field. Provide feedback to the AALC and working groups on the practical use of the products of the Alps programs, and provide advice and suggestions on future needs.
The general performance evaluation requirements for KRAs will be addressed for this KRA by the AOG and reported annually.
The AOG is a Special Task Group established by the AALC under the Strategic Plan 2004-2007.
Purpose: The purpose of the AOG is to facilitate co-operative operational management across the Alps.
Membership: Membership is at least one field-based manager from each agency with an “on-ground” role, chaired by an AALC member (not the AALC Chair) from one of these agencies. A representative of the Tasmanian Alps national parks will be invited to participate in the AOG.
Meetings and agenda: The AOG will meet twice per annum; it will meet annually with AALC and the Working Groups; its standard agenda will include evaluation and reporting on implementation of completed Alps projects.
Role: to consider operational aspects of the Alps Co-operative Management Program and provide advice to the AALC on:
- The integration of Alps projects into Agencies’ operational programs;
- Means of implementing the outputs resulting from projects, on the ground;
- The need for Working Groups for specific project areas;
- New opportunities for co-operative operational management;
- Evaluation and feedback on the practical outcomes of Alps projects (past, current and proposed);
Note: The role of the AOG is to encourage the implementation of the outputs of completed projects, but not to manage projects unless it chooses to do so.